Cannabinoids are chemical compounds that interact with cannabinoid receptors in the body and have effects similar to those produced by Cannabis Sativa L. Before the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, it was often assumed that cannabinoids interact with cell membranes, but Discovery of the first cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s resolved the ongoing debate.
Cannabinoid receptors are found in all vertebrae, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, and reptiles. Two types of cannabinoid receptors are known at the time, CB1 and CB2, but there are many indications that there may be more. Like opiates, cannabinoids affect the user by interacting with specific receptors, which are located in different parts of the central nervous system.
CB1 receptors are found mainly in the brain, especially in the limbic system, including the striatum and hippocampus, and in the basal ganglia. They are also found in the male and female reproductive systems, the anterior eye and the retina.
CB2 receptors are found mainly in the immune system or in cells derived from the immune system. In vitro and animal models suggest that they appear to be responsible for the immunomodulatory and other therapeutic effects. Although found only in the peripheral nervous system, reports indicate that CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum.
There are three types of cannabinoids:
Phytocannabinoids - found in plants, mainly in the genus Cannabis - 146 of which are known to date, but there are 50 others in other plants
Endocannabinoids - the ones our bodies make
Synthetic cannabinoids - cannabinoids made in the laboratory
Although most phytocannabinoids are found in cannabis plants, in addition to cannabis, they are also found in other plant species such as Radula marginata, Echinacea Angustifolia, Helichrysum umbraculigerum, Acmella oleracea, and Echinacea purpurea.
New cannabinoids are constantly being identified and the number currently is known is 146, although very few have been well studied. Some cannabinoids have similar structures, so they are grouped and classified into classes such as Cannabichromenes, Cannabicyclols, Cannabielsoins, Cannabigerols, Cannabinols and Cannabinodiols, Cannabitriols, Delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol, and Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol.
Some of the most common and best-studied phytocannabinoids are:
THC , or delta-9-THC, is the most abundant and well-known cannabinoid found in cannabis and is responsible for the most well-known psychoactive effects of cannabis. THC is a mild pain reliever or pain reliever, stimulates appetite, reduces vomiting and nausea, suppresses muscle spasms and also has antioxidant properties.
THCA is the main cannabinoid in raw cannabis and a precursor to THC. It has anti-inflammatory effects, reduces inflammation, and also acts as an anti-proliferative and antispasmodic, reduces convulsions and convulsions, and inhibits cell growth in tumors/cancers.
CBDA, similar to THCA, is the main ingredient in raw cannabis rich in CBD or rich in CBD. It is a precursor to CBD. CBDA selectively inhibits the enzyme COX-2, contributes to the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis, reduces inflammation, and inhibits the growth of tumor cells.
CBD is the second most studied and well-known cannabinoid. It acts as an antagonist on both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but has a low binding affinity for both. This suggests that the mode of action of CBD is mediated by other receptors in the body and the brain. CBD is known to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, reduce vomiting and nausea, relieve anxiety, reduce convulsions, suppress muscle spasms, and promote bone growth.
CBN is a slightly psychoactive cannabinoid produced by the breakdown and oxidation of THC. It is usually very little or no CBN in a fresh raw cannabis plant, but over time, especially if it is improperly stored, the CBN content increases. It acts as a weak agonist at the level of the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBN is known to reduce pain, suppress muscle spasms and convulsions, and promote sleep.
SEM or rather, it is the acid CBGA version, it is the origin of both THC (A) and CBD (A). Without CBG, there would be neither THC nor CBD, although CBG itself is found in very small amounts in cannabis plants. Another non-psychoactive cannabinoid, CBG, would kill or slow bacterial growth, inhibit cell growth in cancer and tumor cells, reduce inflammation, and promote bone growth. It acts as a low-affinity antagonist at the CB1 receptor.
CBC is another non-psychoactive cannabinoid and is most commonly found in tropical cannabis strains. It is known to relieve pain, inhibit cell growth in tumor/cancer cells, reduce inflammation, and promote bone growth.
THCV is another small cannabinoid that is only found in certain varieties of cannabis, most often in local African varieties and their hybrids. It is very structurally similar to THC, except for the presence of a propyl group (3 carbons), rather than a pentyl group (5 carbons), on the molecule. Although they are very similar in structure, their effects are very different. The effects of THCV include reducing panic attacks, suppressing appetite, and promoting bone growth. THCV acts as an antagonist on the CB1 receptor and a partial agonist on the CB2 receptor.
The first to be identified and isolated Anandamide very pharmacologically similar to THC but with a different structure. It binds to the CB1 receptor and, to a lesser extent, to CB2, where it acts as a partial agonist. Anandamide is found in almost all of the tissues of many animals, but it also occurs in plants and in smaller amounts in chocolate. Anandamide has also been found in human and bovine breast milk.
The rest of the endocannabinoids include - 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether), N Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA), Virodhamine (OAE) and Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI).
3) Synthetic cannabinoids
Initially, synthetic cannabinoids were based on the structure of natural phytocannabinoids, but have since become a separate category, more related to natural cannabinoids or based on the structure of endocannabinoids. A large number of synthetic cannabinoids have been produced and tested, first by a group of scientists gathered around the Roger Adams team in the 1940s and later in a group led by Raphael Mechoulam, often called the father of research on cannabis.
Since only the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis are legally regulated (and banned), synthetic cannabinoids have found their way into the legal and illegal markets. Products like K2, universe, or Spiceoffer similar experiences like cannabis use, but unlike cannabis, they can even seriously damage death. Some countries, like the United Kingdom, have serious problems with synthetic cannabinoids, which leads to dependence and related crimes, but almost all countries where synthetic cannabinoids are sold have reported serious health problems and, in most cases, deaths. This has led some countries to ban synthetic cannabinoids, but they are easily found on the Internet and on illegal or "black" markets.